Md Atiqur Rahman (Bangladesh) 1; Tanvir Ahmad (Bangladesh) 2
1 - Green-Tech Testing Company Limited, Dhaka; 2 - Commitment Consultant, Dhaka
Geographically Bangladesh is most vulnerable to climate change. The gradual increases of temperature around the world resulting global warming thus creates climate change. The climate change consequences such as sea level rise, coastal erosion, extreme weather events and tropical cyclone will have an adverse impact on coastal zone of Bangladesh. The area of coastal zone covered 47,201 square kilometer which is divided into exposed and interior coast according to the position of land. In Bangladesh out of 64 districts, 19 districts where 147 sub-district considered as coastal zone. Among 147sub-district 48sub-district fall on exposed coastal zone. Population density in exposed coast is 482 persons per square kilometer. This research paper analyzes the possible migration of exposed coast’s people due to climate change.
The migration of people in exposed coast is analyzed on the basis of primary and secondary data sources. Climate change has already affected coastal zone of Bangladesh by salinity intrusion, coastal erosion, and loss of biodiversity. In future potential threats are coming strongly. It will affect the sustainable development goals of the country. If the temperature of earth will increase 2º to 4.5ºC by the end of the century, the sea level will rise up to 1 meter. As a result, about 30 million people will displace and 15% land of coastal zone will inundate in Bangladesh. On the basis of random sampling technique, 1200 households were interviewed and the quantities results show that, more than 70% people will migrate to major cities like Dhaka, Khulna, Borishal and Chattogram.Rest of the people will migrate nearby cities locally and regionally.
In addition, 48 Focus Group Discussion was carried out along with Government authority, local NGO and civil society. The qualitative discussion of FGD shows that migration are becoming more common due to changes in agricultural productivity, weather, rainfall, fresh water supplies, ecosystems and fishery. Furthermore, Coastal infrastructure, plantation and adaptation are the short term solution whereas use of renewable energy and reduce carbon emission worldwide will play a vital role to minimize climate change impact in long run. This research will help the policy makers to develop a strategy on migration issue. Policy makers should pay attention on local, regional, national and global migration with the help of expert and development organization. Finally, if the world is not concern to take necessary action to climate change then it will be the worst migration in human history.