Selma B. Pena (Portugal) 1; Manuela R. Magalhães (Portugal) 1; Maria Manuela Abreu (Portugal) 1
1 - Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, LEAF - Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food Research Centre
The International Union for Conservation of Nature defines the Nature-based solutions as actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural or modified ecosystems, that address societal challenges effectively and adaptively, simultaneously providing human well-being and biodiversity benefits. These actions will ensure landscape resilience and improvement of ecosystem services quantity and quality and need to be integrated into landscape planning policies.
This work intends to show how to plan NBS using a landscape planning instrument mapped with an ecological-based approach and criteria. This landscape planning instrument is defined in Portugal as the National Ecological Reserve (REN), and a European Union expert group considered it as an example of a Green Infrastructure.
In the presented work, it is present a mapping proposal of National Ecological Reserve (REN), at a national scale, which is mandatory at the local scale in Portugal since 1983. The current legal framework that regulates REN states that at a national level it is only necessary to have a strategic approach. It is our goal to provide a proposal that involves the awareness of ecological base-planning, not only in a strategic view but specifically located in the landscape, assuring the efficiency of its implementation at regional and local scales.
With this proposal, it was possible to define different land uses according to the ecological characteristics of each area, gathering a group of potential land uses that will not compromise the landscape ecological equilibrium. The evaluation of current land use allowed identifying that 52 % of REN mapped at National scale needs to be the object of specific restoration programs, both in rural and urban landscapes. The application at Regional scale, in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, showed that 13.1 % of REN in LMA should have NBS focused in Restoration of rural and peri-urban areas and 7.2% needs to have NBS in urban areas.
The ecological base approach in planning allows to better target the places to develop NBS and also to better target the typology of NBS in accordance to each ecological system.