Zheng-Zong Yeh (Taiwan) 1; Yi-Ping Yang (Taiwan) 1; Pei-Chien Hsu (Taiwan) 2; Chun-Hsuan Kao (Taiwan) 3; Keng-Cheng Yeh (Taiwan) 3; Li-Ju Chang (Taiwan) 4
1 - Sinotech Engineering Services, LTD; 2 - Sinotech Engineering Consultants, LTD; 3 - Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan, R.O.C. (Taiwan); 4 - Environmental Science Technology Consultants Corporation
In response to the new international energy policy after the Kyoto Protocol was enforced, Taiwan convened the third national energy conference in 2009, and reached a consensus to promote the transformation of low-carbon society and sustainable homeland. The low-carbon sustainable homeland initiative is led by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), which coordinates resources and technology investments from ministries, establishes a taskforce with local governments to develop action plans, design low-carbon technology roadmaps, and establish certification mechanism, etc.
The initiative consists of six topics including ecological greening, renewable resources and energy saving, green transportation, resource recycling, low-carbon living, sustainable development and management, which extends to a total of 105 indicators. In the evaluation process, a community must first establish a taskforce, utilize regional resources and design out low-carbon sustainable transformation pathways, then apply for the certification. Demonstration communities can be further cultivated through self-reliance or receive resource input from relevant government units, generating positive influence to surrounding communities to jointly implement low-carbon sustainable measures.
Up until August 2018, all 22 cities & counties have participated in this system, with a total of 337 townships (92% participation from a total of 368), 3675 villages and communities (47% participation from a total of 7851). There are currently 54 silver and 885 bronze certificated bodies. Strategies implemented have the highest proportion in ecological greening (29.43%), followed by low-carbon life (19.99%), resource recycling (19.94%), and green energy saving (18.16%). At present, most of the communities still focus on mitigation actions, and only a very small portion of communities has implemented sustainable actions, such as community-based adaptation. There are 3 indicators for sustainable development and management including regional natural disaster integrated assessment, promotion of regional adaptation surveys and planning, and groundwater resource management in the subsidence area. It is still very difficult for communities to carry out impact assessments, vulnerability surveys, and adaptation planning without proper assistance from responsible authorities.
In the future Taiwan aims to encourage communities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impact of climate change, ultimate promote co-benefit actions without exhausting additional resources.