Niki Frantzeskaki (Netherlands) 1; Katharina Hölscher (Netherlands) 1; Marleen Lodder (Netherlands) 1; Daan Sillen (Netherlands) 1
1 - DRIFT, Faculty of Social and Behavorial Sciences, Erasmus University Rotterdam
Co-production is a new form of collaborative governance that actively involves different stakeholders in the production of knowledge-based outputs targeting specific urban challenges. Co-production as a governance approach differs from co-creation by being targeted and focusing on knowledge-based procedural and output characteristics; while co-creation is an open-ended and inviting dynamic participation and activation of actors throughout.
In this paper we will present a framework of co-production that includes six design principles: inclusivity, legitimacy, openness, actionable knowledge, usable knowledge and institutional extending. The framework of co-production is set to enable cities to design their own repertoire of co-production that will consist of multiple and diverse settings in which co-production will occur. We report on the application of the framework in three cities in Europe: Genk, Glasgow and Poznan for their nature-based solution large scale demonstrators’ implementation process.
Overall, the design framework provided a heuristic to design settings of knowledge co-production as well as to evaluated co-production processes about their comprehensiveness and fitness to socio-political contexts they are embedded in. It also allowed to systematize knowledge from the experience with co-production from cities back to the conceptual level of the design principles and to the conceptual construct of co-production and transdisciplinary science for sustainability and sustainable urbanization. The value of the framework to other cities that want to set up co-production processes lies in its strength of application that allows cities to rethink and redesign on-going processes to become co-production processes, and in this way advance their participatory planning practice in an adaptive and reflexive way.